This is a surgical video showing the creation of a nipple following stage 2 breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Many patients ask about the process of nipple formation and this video shows a few of the concepts. It is the last in a series of three stages of breast reconstruction.
Flexor tendon lacerations are devastating injuries that hand surgeons all-too-commonly encounter. These injuries require surgical repair to restore the patient’s function. Despite a plethora of research, the basis of primary flexor tendon repair has changed little since the 1970s.
Lower eyelid defects resulting from Mohs micrographic surgery can be challenging to repair. These repairs are fraught with potential complication due to the lower eyelid’s complex anatomy and defect variability. A single “cookie-cutter” treatment regimen does not exist because patients and defects vary. Surgical closure techniques include primary closure, eyelid advancement, rotational ﬂ aps, full thickness skin grafts, and/or allografts. We present a discussion of lower eyelid reconstruction including relevant anatomy, physical signs, and treatment options with examples.